# Transformations of Graphs

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There are many ways that graphs can be transformed but many of them can be expressed as– transformations,– transformations, an– transformation followed by a– transformation or vice versa. The transformations together with their effects are summarised below.

 is transformed to or– transformation or both Effect Scaling byin the– direction Scaling by 3 in the– direction Scaling by 4 in the– direction Translation in the +ve– direction by 2 Translation in the -ve– direction by 1 The left hand side or -ve– part of the graph disappears and is replaced by the reflection of the right hand side of the graph reflected in the y – axis. The -vepart of the graph is reflected in the– axis Translation in the -ve– direction by 3 Translation in the +ve– direction by 1 Scaling in the– direction by both Translation in the +ve– direction by 1 and scaling in the – direction by 2 both Scaling in the– direction byand translation in the– direction by -1 both Translation in the -ve– direction by 1 and in the -ve– direction by 2

Summary of Transformations

You must first decide for each transformation whether it is anor – transformation. The transformations are always counter intuitive:means move 2 in the negative– direction andmeans scale byin the– direction.